t-shoot SSL connection: problem F5

1, Get ssl debug log by:
On F5 cli:
#modify /sys db log.ssl.level value Warning
#tail -f /var/log/ltm
On client side:
#openssl s_client -connect 10.12.23.115:443 -key client1.key -cert client1.crt
GET / HTTP/1.0

Check log and find error number

2, Add irule in the virtual server to get more information about client cert verification:
when CLIENTSSL_CLIENTCERT {
log LOCAL0.debug “nbr certs: [SSL::cert count] verifyResult: [SSL::verify_result] // [X509::verify_cert_error_string [SSL::verify_result]]”
set i 0
while {$i < [SSL::cert count]} {
log LOCAL0.debug "[X509::subject [SSL::cert $i]]"
incr i
}

3, ssldump for trouble ssl session
a) use find to find the path of keyfile
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:In Sync] / # find -iname *.key*
for example
/config/filestore/files_d/partition_d/certificate_key_d/:xxx:sbb-prod.key_104322_1
b) ssldump -A -d -k -n -i
-A Print all fields
-d Show application data when private key is provided via -k
-k Private key file, found in /config/ssl/ssl.key/; the key file can be located under client SSL profile
-n Do not try to resolve PTR records for IP addresses
-i The capture VLAN name is the ingres VLAN for the TLS traffic
For example:
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:Changes Pending] / # ssldump -A -k ./config/filestore/files_d/partition_d/certificate_key_d/:partition:1410ws.verifiering.hsa.sjunet.org.key_98094_1 -i 0.0 host 10.250.14.130 and port 443

key file is not needed to be specified when we only want to check ssl handshake information, not application data:
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:Changes Pending] / # ssldump -ni 0.0 host 10.250.14.130 and port 443

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Increase virtual disk for vCMP guest

Sometime we need increase virtual disk for vCMP guest in order to have space to install new module (for example, ASM). This the the steps to follow:

0, backup and save UCS for vCMP guest
1, set vCMP guest to “configured” statue
2, detach current virtual disk to the vCMP guest
3, delete virtual disk
4, modify the size of the virtual disk:

#tmsh modify sys db vcmp.vdisk.new_image_size value (default size is 100GB)
#tmsh show vamp disk (check disk status of current vcmp guest )
Be careful for this step, it may need to change another variable also to avoid to create the new disk with the same size as previously created disk:
#tmsh modify sys db vcmp.installer.use_vdisk_templates value disabled

5, set vCMP guest to “provisioned” state, this will create a new virtual-disk for the image

Currently there is a bug for F5 that this step will trapped in “stopping” pending statues for vCMP guest, there is no fix right now. the workaround is to either delete the vCMP guest totally and create a new vCMP guest, or restart vcmpd process, which will affect all vCMP guests running in this vCMP host.

6. set vCMP guest to “deployed” state to start up the guest

F5 vCMP upgrade summary

Process of software upgrading:
1, Sync of HA, then reactive license on each node(license should be reactivated in vCMP host when upgrading either vCMP host of vCMP guest)
2, backup and save UCS for each node
3, upload and install new image (new image can be uploaded in vCMP host only,vCMP guest has access to the image in vCMP host, but installation need to be done on each node)
4, reboot
5, check HA status, it may shows “disconnected” because software version do not match on the peer nodes.But failover should work.
6, failover
7, upgrade the previously active node and reload
8, Check HA status, it should be connected and requires sync
9, Sync

Notes:
1, in vCMP solution, you may upgrade vCMP host first or vCMP guest first. Which one goes first does not really matter. Check software support matrix for the compatible vCMP host version and guest version

Useful F5 commands

1, When copy configuration from one unit to the other unit, or creating a lot of vips at the same time, it would be easier to do it via CLI:
a) Edit the configuration on editor
b) Copy and paste the configuration throught F5 cli terminal
user@(xxx)(cfg-sync In Sync)(/S1-green-P:Active)(/partition)(tmos)# load sys config from-terminal merge
Enter configuration. Press CTRL-D to submit or CTRL-C to cancel.

2, ssldump for trouble ssl session
a) use find to find the path of keyfile
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:In Sync] / # find -iname *.key*
for example
/config/filestore/files_d/partition_d/certificate_key_d/:xxx:sbb-prod.key_104322_1
b) ssldump -A -d -k <key file> -n -i <capture VLAN> <traffic expression>
-A Print all fields
-d Show application data when private key is provided via -k
-k Private key file, found in /config/ssl/ssl.key/; the key file can be located under client SSL profile
-n Do not try to resolve PTR records for IP addresses
-i The capture VLAN name is the ingres VLAN for the TLS traffic
For example:
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:Changes Pending] / # ssldump -A -k ./config/filestore/files_d/partition_d/certificate_key_d/:partition:1410ws.verifiering.hsa.sjunet.org.key_98094_1 -i 0.0 host 10.250.14.130 and port 443

3, Use command biptop on cli to check all currenct connections
For example:
[user@xxx:/S1-green-P:Active:In Sync] ~ # bigtop
QUERYING… | bits since | bits in prior | current
| Mar 4 00:16:03 | 0 seconds | time
BIG-IP ACTIVE |—In—-Out—Conn-|—In—-Out—Conn-| 14:28:57
xxx.sth.basefarm.net 691.0T 1.418P 8.543G 0 0 0

VIRTUAL ip:port |—In—-Out—Conn-|—In—-Out—Conn-|-Nodes Up–
/partition/0.0.0.0:any 668.2T 213.5T 704.4M 0 0 0 0

4, You can use the openssl command to verify the client certificate against the Trusted Certificate Authority bundle prior to importing it onto the BIG-IP system. For example, the following openssl command verifies the client certificate, client.crt, against the Trusted Certificate Authority bundle:

openssl verify -purpose sslclient -CAfile /path/to/trusted-ca-bundle.crt /path/to/client.crt

If the chain of trust can be established for the server certificate using the specified chain, the command returns output similar to the following example:

client.crt: OK
5, Use tcpdump to show more tmm information,
for example, to check routed vip:
tcpdump -vs0 -i 0.0:nnn host 164.40.180.65
it shows below, the red part showed routed vip when received request from client.
16:28:44.474154 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 255, id 37043, offset 0, flags [DF], proto: TCP (6), length: 52) vip.http > host.38934: ., cksum 0x4282 (incorrect (-> 0x8e1f), ack 159 win 4297 <nop,nop,timestamp 913578425 3245706819> out slot1/tmm2 lis=/partition/xxxhttp-vip flowtype=64 flowid=5701C0361D00 peerid=5

failover of F5 LTM

 

1, Normally we use HA group (fast failover) because failover when using VLAN fail-safe or Gateway fail-safe will take about 10 secs. HA group failover happens almost immediately.

2, We are using version 11.6 and I have found that we need change failover method (in traffic group) to HA group in order to make HA group failover works.
You may check HA score with command show /sys ha-group

When you have failover method as HA order configured, it shows like this:
LB(Active)(/Common)(tmos)# show /sys ha-group detail

————————–
Sys::HA Group: lb01-ha
————————–
State enabled
Active Bonus 10
Score 0

——————————————–
| Sys::HA Group Trunk: nko-lb01-ha:lb-trunk
——————————————–
| Threshold 1
| Percent Up 100
| Weight 20

HA group score is always 0, no failover will happen even if you shutdown the trunk. When you change failover method to HA group, then it shows as below:
LB(Active)(/Common)(tmos)# show /sys ha-group

————————–
Sys::HA Group: lb01-ha
————————–
State enabled
Active Bonus 10
Score 20

——————————————–
| Sys::HA Group Trunk: nko-lb01-ha:lb-trunk
——————————————–
| Threshold 1
| Percent Up 100
| Weight 20
| Score Contribution 20

3, HA failover unicast configuration
Always you need configure 2 ips in order to make failover works: MGMT IP and failover IP. Especially failover IP is in a dedicated failover link among LTM nodes.
Removing mgmt IP will cause both LTM nodes switch to active statue even failover ip is configured and reachable. Removing failover IP will cause the same issue even if the mgmt ip is configured and reachable.

Sync and mirror ip can be configured as failover IP only, mgmt ip is not necessary here.

4, What will triger failover?
https://support.f5.com/kb/en-us/products/big-ip_ltm/manuals/product/bigip-device-service-clustering-admin-11-5-0/8.html

refer to above link:

The BIG-IP system initiates failover according to any of several events that you define. These events fall into these categories:

System fail-safe
With system fail-safe, the BIG-IP system monitors various hardware components, as well as the heartbeat of various system services. You can configure the system to initiate failover whenever it detects a heartbeat failure.
Gateway fail-safe
With gateway fail-safe, the BIG-IP system monitors traffic between an active BIG-IP system in a device group and a pool containing a gateway router. You can configure the system to initiate failover whenever some number of gateway routers in a pool of routers becomes unreachable.
VLAN fail-safe
With VLAN fail-safe, the BIG-IP system monitors network traffic going through a specified VLAN. You can configure the system to initiate failover whenever the system detects a loss of traffic on the VLAN and the fail-safe timeout period has elapsed.
HA groups
With an HA group, the BIG-IP system monitors trunk, pool, or cluster health to create an HA health score for a device. You can configure the system to initiate failover whenever the health score falls below configurable levels.
Auto-failback
When you enable auto-failback, a traffic group that has failed over to another device fails back to a preferred device when that device is available. If you do not enable auto-failback for a traffic group, and the traffic group fails over to another device, the traffic group remains active on that device until that device becomes unavailable.

5, failover methods:

refer to link https://support.f5.com/kb/en-us/products/big-ip_ltm/manuals/product/bigip-device-service-clustering-admin-11-5-0/8.html

  • Select Load Aware when the device group contains heterogeneous platforms and you want to ensure that a traffic group fails over to the device with the most capacity at the moment that failover occurs.
  • Select HA Order to cause the traffic group to fail over to the first available device in the Failover Order list.
  • Select HA Group to cause the BIG-IP system to trigger failover based on an HA health score for the device.